What is the difference between Moldable Development and ...

--- literate programming

They are similar in that they both promote the use of narratives for depicting systems. However, literate programming offers exactly a single narrative, and that narrative is tied to the definition of the code. Through moldable development we recognize that we always need multiple narratives, and that those narratives must be able to address any part of the system (not only static code).

... model-driven engineering

Model-driven engineering starts from a model and builds a system out of it. Moldable development is more similar to model-centric engineering: one system and multiple views on it.

... visual programming

Typically, visual programming entails a graphical notation with which you create programs. Through moldable development, you construct views orthogonally to how the program was defined. Furthermore, the visuals are not limited to code, but we apply it throughout the whole system, including objects, logs or data.

... data science

It resembles data science quite a bit indeed. The facilitator is much like the data scientist. And custom narratives are created after the question is known. But the emphasis in moldable development is on affecting the act of programming by replacing the manual inspection with custom tools.